In this episode, I spoke with Dr Vik Pandit and Christian Euler, PhD candidate at the University of Toronto, both from Phycus Biotechnologies Inc, an ingredient manufacturer startup based in Toronto. In the first part of this conversation, we talked about AHA ingredients, the challenges of sourcing naturally, the challenges for current naturally derived AHA options, such as lactic acid, in cosmetic products, and the work they’re doing producing naturally derived glycolic acid via biotech. In the second half, we talked about biotech for cosmetics, including what that means, and how it can sustain many ingredients into the future and potentially make them better. Since biotech can fall under the umbrella of genetic modifications depending on the technology, we also spent some time talking about GMOs, a topic fraught with misinformation. We gave our thoughts on the subject, the science behind them, as well as the need for more science literacy among consumers and how we think we can get there. I really enjoyed speaking with Vik and Christian, and I hope you enjoy the conversation just as much!